Thursday, August 27, 2020

Better Known As No Child Left Behind Education Essay Free Essays

string(105) between connected teacher pioneers and understudy achievement is significant and significant ( DuFour, et al. In 2002, Public Law 107-110 drastically changed the answerability of government funded schools. Otherwise called No Child Left Behind ( NCLB ) , this law expects schools to yearly archive bettering understudy open introduction through state administered testing. Since all schools must turn out Adequate Yearly Progress ( AYP ) , Fullan noticed that review plans, after school mentoring Sessionss, overabundance coaching in arithmetic and perusing, extraordinarily planned single plans, and numerous other understudy change endeavors have been utilized to help students achieve capability. We will compose a custom article test on Also called No Child Left Behind Education Essay or on the other hand any comparative subject just for you Request Now Regions have employed additional teachers to gracefully healing arithmetic and understanding course, and benchmark examinations chronicling understudy progression have become normal topographic point ( Fullan, Hill A ; Crevola, 2006 ) . Fullan saw that schools use informations bearing frameworks to distribution center understudy data, giving educators dish to ongoing open introduction informations, and have created building plans to enable teachers to deftly amass students dependent on their single open introduction requests. In world, all schools trying to achieve or keep AYP consistently look for plans that will give them any bit of leeway in bettering in general understudy open introduction on necessary high wagers preliminaries ( Senge, 2000 ) . However, more requests to be done to ensure that no child is abandoned ( Fullan, 2008 ) . The exploration laborer in this review ventured off from the minuscule investigation of how best in class curricular plans and high-sway plans increment single preliminary tonss for understudies. Or maybe, the examination specialist took a gander at the examples recognized and created by the worry network at enormous that have been appeared to raise the level of worker fight which so improves a ) open introduction, B ) benefit, degree Celsius ) customer fulfillment, nutrient D ) productiveness, and nutrient E ) lower turnover of concern units ( Buckingham A ; Coffman, 1999 ) . Since Buckingham noticed that there is a significant connection between achievement in concern and representative fight, the exploration specialist in this study will investigate principals ‘ perceptual encounters of examples that raise worker fight in the worry network and their detected effectivity in bettering instructor fight in the schools where they lead. Blending to Scarlett, representative fight â€Å" is key in concern, yet not many associations effectively characterize, step, or pull off this driving hypothetical record. † Top-performing concerns comprehend this power in driving open introduction prosodies ( Coffman, 2003 ) . For this overview, representative fight is characterized as the â€Å" quantifiable evaluation of a representative ‘s positive or negative passionate affectionate respect to their occupation, associates, and association which profoundly impacts their eagerness to larn and execute at work † ( Scarlett, 2011 ) . So as to raise fight, associations try to develop organizations between the association and its representatives with the end goal that workers to the full comprehend and are focused on achieving the association ‘s points and the association regards the individual desires and yearnings of its representatives resulting in innovation and forward movement ( Coffman, 2003 ) . Buckin gham and Coffman ( 1999 ) have plot a solid example that shows the significance of the executive and their administrative examples in raising the level of worker fight. All in all, whenever executed by principals, would these equivalent plans and examples that have been appeared to drive up degrees of representative fight and open introduction emphatically sway instructor fight? Bellamy and others noticed that open introduction viewpoints for principals in this high-stakes testing age are at remarkable high degrees. While principals despite everything hold the obligation for solid structure heading, at no other clasp has the power per unit territory to better preliminary tonss so remarkably burdened their shoulders and concentrated their going to additional on instructional driving. â€Å" Once mindful primarily for inner tasks, principals presently are responsible to the network, school an area, region, and even government experts for bettering student procurement and shuting the achievement spreads between various social and financial understudy bunches † ( Bellamy, et al. , 2007, p. 1 ) . Pollack and Ford noticed that educational systems networks despite everything anticipate that principals should a ) make safe conditions, B ) create strong plans, degree Celsius ) employ and regulate quality staff, nutrient D ) talk great out in the open, nutrient E ) effectually discipline understudies, certificate Fahrenheit ) oversee piles of desk work everyday, and g ) reference an endless conduit of issues that strive for their clasp. Pollack proceeds with that while adroitly dealing with these typical viewpoints, principals are other than anticipated to a ) investigate informations, B ) create automatic improvement programs, degree Celsiuss ) program and run great expert turn of events, nutrient D ) follow a reiteration of territory approvals identified with understudy informations, and e ) make conditions adding to superior. They are relied upon to be change specialists while non rankling any voting public ( Pollack A ; Ford, 2009 ) . Porras and Thompson deduced that with thes e standpoints, it is basic for principals to comprehend their alone capacities and obligations and dispense the correct aggregate of clasp to each, non equivalent or adjusted parts, however rather their ain independently picked propensities. They have to hold the opportunity to take what is of import to make thus hold the confirmation to proceed onward what they have picked ( Porras A ; Thompson, 2007 ) . Fullan ( 2008 ) noticed that the answer for over-burdened authoritative obligations is â€Å" non to unfetter the chief to move self-sufficiently, however rather to empower focussed intelligibility † ( p. 13 ) in their activities. One feature of this lucidness is to indict educators at high degrees in the strategic the school, a key to solidly pull offing schools. Educator fight is basic to class improvement, estimated by the three components of schoolroom guidance and securing: a ) instructor understudy connections, B ) educational examples, and degree Celsius ) educator associations with the association ( Lesko, 1986 ) . The chief is required to take schools where their educators are allowed to indict in real life research on a continued balance in a communitarian situation. â€Å" The pioneer ‘s map is to gracefully risks for educators to cooperate in self-overseeing crews to better their ain course, ever with the standpoint for improved obtaining † ( DuFour, e t al. , 2005, p.147 ) . It could be said, this transportations driving for larning to and raises the skirmish of the teacher. The connection between connected teacher pioneers and understudy achievement is significant and significant ( DuFour, et al. You read Otherwise called No Child Left Behind Education Essay in classification Article models , 2005 ) . Gordon noticed that there are authoritative boundaries to raising educator fight degrees, for example, a ) affiliation understandings, B ) educational committee commands, degree Celsius ) constrained learning plans, nutrient D ) student plans, and nutrient E ) days gone by designs ; those set up designs non part of formal understandings. These hindrances can and have effect the educator ‘s â€Å" enthusiastic affectionate respect to their occupation, associates, and association † ( Scarlett, 2011 ) . It is basic, thus, to focus on expanding teacher fight ( Gordon, 2006 ) so as to raise school open introduction. Gordon saw that the writing on raising open introduction through bringing worker fight up in the work environment is abundant in business-situated writing. Gordon kept on recognizing that raising the level of representatives ‘ fight is non yet as persuasive in instructive scenes for what it's worth in the work environment ; by and by, the endeavor to indict educators is determining land. Examination has contemplated the highlights of the best representatives for decennaries. As more surveies of the highlights of the best educator keep on rising, a closeness is that they have a serious extent of fight ( Gordon, 2006 ) . Buckingham and Coffman ( 1999 ) touted the significance of holding amazingly connected with representatives, and associations like Gallup, the Harvard Business School, the Albert Shanker Institute, and the Academy of Human Resource Development have each prominent the positive monetary effect of involved working environments. Odell ( 2007 ) indicated that organizations with the most noteworthy per centum of involved laborers experience more prominent total compensation. â€Å" In a year overview across 50 organizations: organizations with the most elevated per centum of involved specialists had a 19 % expansion in runing earnings and a 28 % expansion in overall gains per partition † ( p. 1 ) . Statisticss like this spring expanded actuation to discover whether the level of principals ‘ perceptual encounters of best examples in concern course has any effect on teacher fight. Expanding on crafted by unbounded business-arranged surveies, this review will break down explicit examples that have been recognized and appeared to raise concern unit open introduction and inspect principals ‘ perceptual encounters regarding whether these equivalent examples may affect educator fight in a positive mode. Requirement for the Study Guardians, regardless of financial or social foundation, need to guide their children to schools focused on greatness ( Beare, et al. , 1990 ) . Each educator yearns for the expert vitality of working in a domain of instructive greatness ( McEwan

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Meaning Of Life Essays - Meaning Of Life, Metaphysics

The Meaning Of Life Prologue to Philosophy Paper #1 The Meaning of Life The human progress has been on earth for a great many years at this point. We began with basic devices and utilized gives in as safe house. Presently we rely upon PCs, appreciate an extravagant life and grow better approaches to improve our lives much more. I generally wonder in the event that we at long last arrived at the last phase of progress in our history. I mean what else would we be able to do? At the point when I consider that question, the possibility of the significance of life strikes a chord and I question the purpose behind my reality on this planet. My own hypothesis regarding this matter expresses that we are here to dazzle God with our musings and activities, so as to demonstrate to him that we can deal with any impediments on Earth so as to accomplish confidence and wonder to be set up for God in paradise. However, of course my hypothesis probably won't bode well to somebody who doesn't trust in God. On the off chance that there were no God, at that point what might the significance of life for the non-devotee be? The importance of life is a sensitive point in light of the fact that nobody has the response to it, yet there are numerous speculations that endeavor to clarify it and assist us with understanding life better. There are numerous individuals on the planet that don't have faith in anything and imagine that nothing truly matters since we may be dead in the short future. This is a fascinating thought provided that the world will end soon, at that point it doesn't generally make a difference what we do now. I mean on the off chance that there is no reason forever, at that point for what reason should we even try to battle for a superior life if those accomplishments won't be lasting. On the off chance that we think that way, at that point there is no good reason for what we do, except if we make sense of what life is and what we need to do with it. As I would see it, we can clarify the purpose of a large portion of the things we do if not all. We are totally raised along these lines and we figure out how to impart our planet to different animals. We figure out how to impart, we express our sentiments and we gain some new useful knowledge regularly so as to improve our lives. We work to acquire cash so as to endure and bolster our families. We eat, rest, and appreciate amusement. We additionally converse with our companions and attempt to be the best at what we do. That is to say, on the off chance that we didn't do any of that, at that point our lives would be hopeless and there would be no good reason for it. At that point we ask ourselves once more, ?Is that actually the significance of life or is there additional to it.? In the course of our life we do every one of these things and for the most part we don't consider them. I mean in the event that we take a gander at our lives there is actually no good reason for it by any stretch of the imagination. We experience good and bad times constantly, we experience bliss and bitterness, and we as a whole consider passing. The greater part of us need to be recalled when we die, however then we consider demise and we understand that we will be overlooked and just our nearby relatives will recollect us. I mean others won't generally care about our passing in light of the fact that there is no good reason for their life either, since the importance of life isn't known to any of us and most likely never will be. We are near our families and we appear to cherish one another, however that will all go when passing shows up. We as a whole have the chance to cause our life to have a bigger importance. Regardless of whether we don't accept that chance then we can make ourselves conviction that it is feasible on the grounds that numerous individuals around us had the option to do it. I mean we may be a piece of a political or a social development, which may influence our lives now and advantage the people in the future. For instance a researcher may have the option to accomplish that point from numerous points of view. Through his work he can at any rate make sense of a major piece of the significance of life. In this day and age we have researchers chipping away at solutions for

Friday, August 21, 2020

Ever heard of USB Finger

Ever heard of USB Finger Make Money Online Queries? Struggling To Get Traffic To Your Blog? Sign Up On (HBB) Forum Now!Ever heard of USB Finger?Updated On 01/10/2011Author : Pradeep KumarTopic : TechnologyShort URL : CONNECT WITH HBB ON SOCIAL MEDIA Follow @HellBoundBlogIt is really interesting to make connections between man and machine. Jerry Jalava started it by replacing his lost finger with a USB finger. It looks like a normal finger but he can peel it back from the nail and plug it into the USB drive on his computer. Jerry Jalava is a Finnish computer programmer he lost a finger in a motorcycle accident.Jerry Jalava with his USB FingerThe accident took place near Finnish capital Helsinky after crashing into a deer with his one week old Ducati Monster 696 motorbike. Jerry Jalava got this idea from a doctor who unintentionally said that he should have a USB Finger Drive and Mr.Geek went for this idea.BTW, it is 2GB USB finger. This USB finger can store photos, movies and softwares like any other USB stuff.This is not a hoax unlike the story of a guy who altered his thumbs for the better use of his phone keyboard. The Finnish programmer plans to upgrade his finger in the near future with a removable fingertip, an RFID tag and more storage space.USB Finger Of Jerry JalavaThe finger is not permanently attached to his finger, it can be removed when using it in a computer.Jerry Jalava says,It is not attached permanently in to my body, it is a removable prosthetic which has a USB memorystick inside it, said Jerry. When Im using the USB, I just leave my finger inside the slot and pick it up after Im ready.READGet Through Your Email Faster - Gmail Priority Inbox

Monday, May 25, 2020

Developing A Strategy And Implementing An Effective...

Introduction/Objective: The team took a proactive approach by developing a strategy and implementing an effective solution for completing the design project within the established timeframe. Teaming describes the combining or joint effort in completing a task or working together in unison to create change, (Edmondson, 2012). As a team, we discussed the requirements for the project and determined the best method of approach by dividing the process into stages. Organizing to learn encourages intuition and the development of new ideas, (Edmondson, 2012). Our first step was to decide on an organization that would provide a topic of interest in order to establish a platform in which to build upon. Quantum ideas and increment ideas are†¦show more content†¦As a team, we agreed that this topic, though very controversial, would provide the necessary elements needed to formulate a design project of interest. The team’s ability to think outside the box and engage in crea tive thinking allowed us to put our strategy into motion. Framing changes our direction of thinking by challenging our thought process and redefining the important aspects of how we perceive a certain situation, (Edmondson, 2012). By the second week of this project, the team had picked an organization, identified a topic of interest and developed a method of application. In order to maintain consistency in progress we decided to align areas of interest with strong points of each member of the team. The team agreed that it would be advantageous to assign specific responsibilities, based on proficiency and technical skills. By defining these areas, the team was able to develop a practical approach to completing the project. As we follow our vision we need to remember to enable others through support and encouragement, (Kouzes and Posner, 2012). This is essential in building confidence within the group enhancing the one team one-mission concept, (Kouzes and Posner, 2012). As a group, we identified certain members of the team that demonstrated strong writing skills, which would be essential in developing the narrative portion of the project. The narrative was divided into three parts to include introduction, body and

Thursday, May 14, 2020

British Petroleum Description Of The Company Essay Example Pdf - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3602 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? British Petroleum is one of the five major energy companies in the world engaged in the business of oil and natural gas exploration and marketing as well as development of renewable energy devices across 80 countries of the world. The company with around 80300 staff members on its payroll in 2009 made an annual turn of US $ 239 Billion that made the BP the fourth largest global production house (BP, 2010, pp. 46-49). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "British Petroleum Description Of The Company Essay Example Pdf" essay for you Create order The company also has a large market share in store and sale of petrochemicals. British Petroleum has four major operations in energy business, namely; (a) exploration; (b) refining, production and marketing; (c)Petrochemicals and (d) Power, Gas and Renewable (Article 13, 2004). British Petroleum that started its operation as a joint venture called Anglo Persian Oil Company (APOC) in 1909 made a remarkable journey from a modest start in oil exploration to become one of the largest players in the energy sector currently engaged in business of (a) Crude Petroleum Natural Gas; (b) Natural Gas Liquids; (c ) Petroleum Refining; (d) Lubricating Oils Greases; (e) Natural Gas Transmission; (f) Crude Petroleum Pipelines; (g) Refined Petroleum Pipelines; (h) Petroleum Bulk Stations Terminals; (.i) Chemicals Allied Products, and (j) Offices of Holding Companies and so on (Anonymous). After its privatisation in several tranches in the 1980s (Poole, 2008), it has eventually become the large st private corporation in the United Kingdom as per the Forbes list for the year 2000 (Times, 2009). In its attempt to portray its image as a responsible and sustainable business enterprise in the energy sector, the company also ventured into solar energy and other forms of non conventional energy sources that brought it a fame termed in many circles as Beyond Petroleum although such claims of being responsible has been under threat due to some accidents that occurred in recent times that brought the company under heavy criticism (Hayes, 2010]. However, our present purpose here is not to get into these details but to get into an analysis of company finance after presenting a brief overview of the company, its profile and its role in the sector. The physical and financial performance of the British Petroleum is provided in Table-1 and Table-2. The information in the table is reproduced in Chart-3 and Chart-4 in the form of indexes taking year 2005 as the base. Chart-1 Source: h ttps:// Chart-2 Source: As can be seen from Chart-1 and Chart-2, both in terms of Market Capitalization by its own as well as in comparison with other players in the sector, the BP has shown weaknesses in the recent years in comparison to its earlier performance. This can largely be contributed to the recent oil spill incident highlighted in the media caused by the negligence of BP in ensuring adequate safety measures in its operations. Table-1 Performance in Physical Output of British Petroleum Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Crude Oil Production for Subsidiaries (000 barrels per day) 1423 1351 1304 1263 1400 Crude Oil Production for Equity Accounted Entities (000 barrels per day) 1139 1124 1110 1138 1135 Natural Gas Production for Subsidiaries (Million Cubic Feet per day) 7512 7412 7222 7277 7450 Natural gas production for Equity Accounted Entities (Million Cubic Feet per day) 912 1005 921 1057 1035 Source: BP, 2010, 13 Table-2 Financial Performance of British Petroleum over Recent Years Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sales and other operating revenues from continuing operations* 239792 265906 284365 361143 239272 Profit before interest and taxation from continuing operations* 32182 35658 32352 35239 26426 Profit from continuing operations* 22133 22626 21169 21666 16759 Profit for the year 22317 22601 21169 21666 16759 Profit for the year attributable to BP shareholders 22026 22315 20845 21157 16579 Capital expenditure and acquisitions# 14149 17231 20641 30700 20309 Source: BP, 2010, 12 As can be seen from Table-1 and Table-2, although the output level of BP has not undergone significant changes except for some marginal decline in the most recent years, in most of its financial indicators, it has shown significant decline between 2008 and 2009. In terms of profit, it is has performed miserably even compared to its 2005 levels as can be clearly noticed from the index lines presented in Chart-4 Chart-3 Source: Drawn on the basis of information in Table-1 Chart-4 Source: Drawn on the basis of information in Table-2 With this broad overview, let us now focus on the financial structure of the BP Plc. Financing Structure of British Petroleum: A Comparative Perspective As we are aware, financial structure is a framework of various types of financing employed by a firm to organise resources required for its operations. Usually, it consists of equity capital, loan capital, over draft and some short term liabilities. Table-3 provides the major financial trends for the British petroleum in the last five years. As can be seen from the table-3, the debt to equity ratio for the British Petroleum has gone up from 24 percent to 34 percent between 2005 and 2009. The debt equity ratio is calculated to measure the companys financial leverage or risk. Although it is a problematic measure of leverage, it is one of the most used financial ratio to calculate the risk of business. An increase in the debt equity ratio holds that the risks associated with the financial aspects of British Petroleum have increased over last few years. Table-3 Major Financial Trends in British Petroleum 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Total Assets 206914 217601 236076 228238 235968 Net Assets 80450 85465 94652 92109 102113 Share Capital 5185 5385 5237 5176 5179 BP Shareholders Equity 79661 84624 93690 91303 101613 Finance Debt Due after more than one year 10230 11086 15651 17464 25518 Net debt 16,373 21,122 26,817 25,041 26,161 Equity 80,765 85,465 94,652 92,109 1,02,113 Select Financial Ratios Debt to debt-plus-equity ratio 19% 22% 24% 27% 25% Debt to equity ratio 24% 28% 32% 36% 34% Net debt to net debt-plus-equity ratio 17% 20% 22% 21% 20% Net debt to equity ratio 20% 25% 28% 27% 26% Source: BP 2010 -a, 27 It is very difficult to draw conclusions on the basis of financial information for a single company unless we compare it with others in the same industry. This is particularly so because, the level of risks that can be comfortably undertaken, the amount of profit that can be considered as adequate etc can be misleading as they are very specific to the industry under review. Therefore, in order to analyse the financial situation of the BP Plc, we have undertaken a comparison of it with the Exxon Mobil, another major in the sector that is also a world leader and even larger in terms of its coverage and business compared to the BP Plc. Table-4 provides a comparison between BP plc and Exxon Mobil on the basis of several select indicators over last five years. However, before we make such a comparison, it might be useful to take into account the concepts used in these comparisons. Return on equity is the ratio of the sum of net income from the total operatio ns of the last five years (2005-2009) and the sum of common equity over the last five years. The ratio exhibits the level of business strength a company commands in terms of its income or revenue. Return on assets is the ratio of the sum of income for last five years to the sum of total assets. This indicates the productivity of the assets held by the company. Return on invested capital is the ratio income and invested capital, which shows the productivity of the capital. Gross profit margin is the ratio of gross profit (income minus cost) to the total income over the last five years. The different between pre -tax and post tax profit margin indicate the comfort a company enjoys in terms of its consistency with the acceptable level of rules and regulations in the area it operates. SGA indicate the ratio of summation of selling, general and administrative expenses to overall revenue of the company. Total debt equity ratio takes into account both short term and long term debts in calc ulating debt equity ratio. Table-4 A Comparison Between Selected Financial five year averages of BP Plc and Exxon Mobil. BP Plc Exxon Mobil Return on Equity 22.8% 31.7% Return on Assets 9.2% 16.0% Return on Invested Capital 19.4% 29.9% Gross Profit Margin 20.0% 34.7% Pre-Tax Profit Margin 11.3% 17.9% Post-Tax Profit Margin 7.4% 10.2% Net Profit Margin (Total Operations) 7.4% 10.2% SGA as a % of Sales 5.2% 4.2% Debt/Equity Ratio 0.18 0.06 Total Debt/Equity Ratio 0.32 0.08 Source: For BP Plc, For Exxon Mobil, As can be noticed from the comparison between Exxon and BP Plc, in most of the cases indicating the strength factors, Exxon has performed much better than the British petroleum. On the other hand, a lower SG A for Exxon ind icates that BP Plc spends a lot of money in advertising its brand and other non productive expenses compared to the total revenue of the company, This also indicate that on account of returns from advertising and other non-output related expenses, BP lags behind the Exxon. Finally, on account of risk factors associated, the figures for BP are alarmingly higher than the Exxon Mobil. While the average debt equity ratio indicating the leverage or risk of the company is around 18 percent for BP, it is only 6 percent for the Exxon Mobil. If one takes into account the short term debts also, the proportion of debt equity ratio almost doubles the longer term debt equity ratio to reach around 32 percent for BP plc compared to only 8 percent in terms of Exxon. From the analysis, it is clear that the financial structure is not appropriate in case of BP Plc when compared to other market players in the industry. The lower differences in the post tax and pre tax profit margin for British petroleu m might indicate that the company enjoys tax benefits as well as other privileges compared to others. A deeper analysis is required for the same. Chart -4 gives a visual comparison of the information provided in Table-4. Chart-5 Source: As per information in Table-4 Cost of Capital in British Petroleum For any production centre, cost of capital is a significant factor for consideration, as it measures to cost a company incurs towards its funds. As we are aware, funds of a company consists of both debt and equity and the cost of such funding would require a consideration of both the cost of debt as well as the cost of the equity or the required rate of return to ensure investment in a company. Cost of debt includes the risk free rate of bonds, credit risk rates and tax rate. On the other hand, the cost of equity is a function of dividend yields and the growth rate of dividends. In other words, the required return on any equity, as per the Capital Asset Price Modelling, is the risk free rate plus beta times expected market risk premium (Megginson, 336). Or E(RS ) = Rf + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²s (Rm -Rf) Where, E(RS) is the expected return, Rf is the expected risk free return in the market or the government bond yield rate, ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²s is the sensitivity to market risk for the security, and Rm is the historical return of the stock market. On the other hand the weighted average cost of capital is represented by the formula; WACC = {D/(D+E)}rd + {E/(D+E)}re, Where, D and E are the market value of the firms debt and equity, .rd and re are the rates of return expected by investors on debt and equity (Megginson, 343). In the Table -5 We have provided a WACC calculation for both BP Plc and Exxon Mobil. As the information shows, the value of WACC for BP Plc is at 9 percent compared to a lesser value of 7 percent for Exxon. This indicates that the capital risk level of British petroleum is higher compared to its competitor. Table-5 We ighted Average Cost of Capital for BP Plc and Exxon Mobil Indicators BP Plc Exxon Mobil Price of the Stock ($) 27 59 Beta Levered 0.72 0.42 Debt (Million $) 35127 14428 Shares (Million $) 3131 4698 Equity(Million $) 85719 279108 Capital (Million $) 120846 293536 Debt equity (%) 40.98 5.17 Debt Capital (%) 29.07 4.92 Tax (%) 31.9 43.4 WACC Calculation 9.00% 7.00% Cost of Debt 7.00% 7.00% Cost of Equity 10.00% 9.00% Risk Free Rate 4.40% 4.40% Sources: For BP Plc.,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616934version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1HYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616934version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1show=tb%2Cfb%2Crh%2Cch%2Cmb%2Csl%2CHYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616934version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1HYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch ,mb,sl,bookid=3616934version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1bookid=3616934HYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616934version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1HYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616934version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1version=2HYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616934version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1HYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616934version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1frame_style=border%3A9px%20solid%20%23666%3Bh eight%3A380px%3Bwidth%3A100%25HYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616934version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1HYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616934version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1edit=1 For Exxon Mobil:,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616948version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1HYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616948version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1show=tb%2Cf b%2Crh%2Cch%2Cmb%2Csl%2CHYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616948version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1HYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616948version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1bookid=3616948HYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616948version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1HYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616948version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1version=2HYPERLINK,f b,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616948version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1HYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616948version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1frame_style=border%3A9px%20solid%20%23666%3Bheight%3A380px%3Bwidth%3A100%25HYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616948version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1HYPERLINK,fb,rh,ch,mb,sl,bookid=3616948version=2frame_style=border:9px solid #666;height:380px;width:100%edit=1edit=1 PART-II A Preliminary Report on the new Venture of the British Petroleum site in Cambodia Background: In last fifty years, there has been several efforts in vain for economic e xploration and production of petroleum products in Cambodia. The French tried it initially in late 1969 and stopped their efforts in 1975 after the fall of the Khmer Republic(Library of Congress, 2009). However, by 1998, three out of nine exploration wells drilled by UK, French Australian and Japanese companies bore successful results. The initiative by UKs Enterprise Oil at two test sites in Angkor -1 well and Khao Tang-1 well have capacity to produce 6 million cubic feet of gas and 1500 barrels of oil per day. While it is possible to make these efforts economically profitable through negotiations with the present government there which has a open attitude for international trade and FDI, the strategic and locational advantages of initiating a business venture in Cambodia are many. However, in this report, there has been an attempt to focus on the economic aspects of the effort only. It might also be useful to mention some other players interested in the offshore oil ventures in th e gulf of Thailand under the jurisdiction of Cambodia. They are Chevron Overseas Petroleum (Cambodia) Ltd, Moeco Cambodia Company (a subsidiary of Mitsui Oil Exploration Company Ltd.), Singapore Petroleum Company Ltd, PTTEP International Ltd, Resourceful Petroleum Ltd and Cooper Energy Ltd. (Janes 2009). Given the overall condition there, a new LPG production plant can be established by BP in Cambodia. Table-A World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption Proven Reserves As on January 2008 Production in (2007) Consumption (2007) (Tcm) share (%) (Bcm) share (%) (Bcm) share (%) North America 8 4.5 767.3 26.3 791.5 27.1 Latin America 7.4 4.1 147 5 128.7 4.4 Europe 6.2 3.5 288.8 9.9 544.4 18.6 Former Soviet Union 53.8 30.1 790.7 27.1 629.7 21.6 Africa 14.6 8.1 191.5 6.6 85.3 2.9 Middle East 73.9 41.3 353.9 12.1 298.3 10.2 Asia and Oceania 15.1 8.4 381.2 13.1 442.3 15.1 Total 178.9 100 2920.4 100 2920.4 100 Source: Kobayashi, (2010) As can be seen from Table-A, the consumption in the Asia Pacific region is much higher than the production level and this can form the basis of the rationale behind having a fully owned subsidiary in the region. On the other hand, the rise in the international price of natural gas in the form of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has increased from $ 194 per metric tonne in 2002 to around $ 802 in October 2008. This indicates that the business will have adequate potential for profit in the region (See Chart-A). Chart-A Trends in International Price of LPG ($/MT) Source: GOI (2008) Table-B provides a business plan for a small scale LPG production unit in Cambodia. As we can see from the Table, Table-B Plant Features Estimated Plant cost ($ Million) 25 Annual Gas Input (Quantity in Billion SCF) 20 A nnual Gas Input Cost ($ per SCF) 0.25 Annual Gas Input Total Cost ($ Million) 5 Products LPG (12.17%) Dry Gas (85.10%) Condensate (1.61%) Quantity 142930 17 million 300400 Unit tonnes 000 SCF bbls Product Unit Cost ($) 150 per tonne 0.5 20 Product Value ($ Million) 21.44 8.5 6.01 Plant Depreciation @ 10 % ($ Million) 2.5 Expected surplus over production material cost (Excluding labour and other costs) (in $ Million) 13.94 8.5 6.01 Based on the Calculations provided by TATA MESSIRI Chart-B Wholesale Price Index of LPG in the Region Note: In the absence of information on Cambodian data, Indian figures have been take as indicative figures: Source: GOI 2010 As can be seen from the Table, the rough calculations would indicate a huge return from operations in the locality. Given that the the country can provide cheap labour, the final costs would not be much higher. The plant construct ion and production would not take more than two years given its small size and by that time, while the output cost will increase significantly, wages being sticky, the input cost would not increase that much. So from this preliminary analysis, this can be considered as an economically viable project. What follows is a brief projections about the operation of the plant. In order to present the NPV, we need to calculate the free cash flow statement and the cost of capital. The cost of capital for BP is assumed to be at 9 percent. Table-C gives the calculations for NPV for the new project. As per the formula, NPV=ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ £0t FCF t / (1+WACC) t FCF0 Where, Expected Quantity in MT =14293 WACC for BP assumed to be fixed at 9% =0.09 Table-C NPV Calculation for the New Project Price per MT Expected Revenue Unit Cost of production Total Cost of production FCF t (1+r)t FCFt/(1+r)t Nt 2008 851 Nil 2009 1030 Nil 2010 1246 0 700 10005100 -10005100 0 1.0 -10005100 -20010200 2011 1508 0 847 12107018 -12107018 1 1.1 -11107356 -21112456 2012 1824 26073206 1025 14648467 11424739 2 1.2 9615974 -389126 2013 2207 31550786 1240 17725885 13824901 3 1.3 10675360 670260 2014 2671 38179122 1501 21449821 16729301 4 1.4 11851459 1846359 2015 3232 46199970 1816 25956100 20243870 5 1.5 13157127 3152027 2016 3910 55905874 2197 31409077 24496796 6 1.7 14606639 4601539 2017 4731 67650839 2658 38007642 29643197 7 1.8 16215844 6210744 2018 5725 81863240 3216 45992463 35870777 8 2.0 18002333 7997233 2019 6927 99061448 3892 55654772 43406676 9 2.2 19985639 9980539 2020 8382 119872734 4709 67346984 52525750 1 0 2.4 22187445 12182345 NPV 5129264 Notes: Price per MT (extrapolated as per annual average growth rate in WPI of LPG at 21% as given in Chart A) Cost of production @ 700 per MT as per local Calculations available from Secondary sources as in 2010 and with a growth rate similar to the price of LPG FCF = Free Cash Flow Statement (=Net Revenue-Net Cost) t is the time period in years As can be seen from the table, the NPV calculated shows the viability of the project. Appendix (Charts) Chart 1 Market Capitalisation4 Chart 2 Market Capitalisation of BP and its competitors.4 Chart 3 Trend of output performance of BP6 Chart 4 Financial Report of BP in recent years.6 Chart 5 Comparison between BP and Exxon.9 Chart A Trends in International Price of LPG..13 Chart B Wholesale Price Index of LPG in the Region14 Appendix (Tables) Table-1 Performance in Physical Output of British Petroleum.5 Table-2 Financial Performance of British Petroleum over Recent Years.5 Table-3 Major Financial Trends in British Petroleum7 Table-4 A Comparison Between Selected Financial five year averages of BP Plc and Exxon Mobil..8 Table-5 Weighted Average Cost of Capital for BP Plc and Exxon Mobil.11 Table-A World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption..12-13 Table-B Plant Features.14 Table-C NPV Calculation for the New Project .15

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

David Wiesners Wordless Picture Books Essay - 698 Words

David Wiesners Wordless Picture Books David Wiesner is a very artistic author. His love for art is portrayed through his style of work. When flipping through the pages of his books, the reader is immediately drawn to the pictures. A particular style the Wiesner is known for is wordless picture books. A wordless picture book is exactly what it says; it is a book containing only pictures. A wordless picture book is a very personal experience for the reader ( A child can benefit tremendously from this style of book. Wordless picture books stimulate creativity and language, while at the same time introducing a child to basic principles of books and reading. Sector 7 and Free†¦show more content†¦There is not one correct interpretation, which allows children to be as creative as they want to be. Language can also be developed through this style of writing. Without words on the page, it is up to the reader to decide what is being said. The reader is given the chance to verbally add his or her own words. This tremendously helps with language and vocabulary. The reader begins to create thought that have a beginning and an end. One is able to enhance their vocabulary by seeing things that they may not have seen before. Through a wordless picture book, a child is introduced to the basic principles of a book. One of these principles is the way in which books are read. Wordless picture books ...can accustom them to the left-to-right pattern of reading... (Sutherland 84). The reader reads the pictures from the left page to the right. In Sector 7, many of the pages have multiple pictures on them. The successive pictures are stacked on top of each other. This may help the child learn that he or she is to read from top to bottom, along with left to right. The sequence of pictures throughout the book is also important. This allows children to learn that books have story lines. The reader learns that every story has a beginning or introduction. Each picture builds upon the last and are all connected. The reader is able to relate each

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Examining the criticisms of Historical Cost Accounting Essay Example For Students

Examining the criticisms of Historical Cost Accounting Essay For many old ages comptrollers have been required to follow with the regulations and guidelines set out in the accounting constructs and conventions. One accounting technique used is the historical cost convention which requires the minutess to be recorded at the original monetary value, i.e. , the monetary value paid, in the balance sheet. The ? sum and the day of the month of the dealing are both recorded under historical cost convention. This merely means that the assets and disbursals of a house must be recorded at the original cost when purchased and the net income is to be calculated by cut downing the gross by the original cost of the resources used. The point must stay in the histories until it has been disposed of. However, HCA does confront much unfavorable judgment due to the jobs with rising prices. When rising prices was rather high, the IASB issued the IAS 15, as it s attack was to keep fiscal histories accurately, taking all factors into consideration, this merely intend that companies were required to bring forth rising prices adjusted histories, nevertheless, when rising prices fell this was removed from developed states as houses were unwilling to do such minor accommodations. However, less developed states that are sing hyperinflation, are still required to bring forth these rising prices adjusted histories. This is why the ASB continually develops new Financial Reporting theoretical accounts and continually improves bing theoretical accounts. Outline1 Historical Cost Accounting2 2.2 RC3 2.3 NRV4 2.4 Three theoretical accounts compared.5 Accounting Standards Board6 IASC / IASB7 Decision Historical Cost Accounting Financial statements produced under this convention supply a footing for finding the result of bureau understandings with sensible certainty and predictability because the day of the months are comparatively nonsubjective Historical Cost Accounting ( HCA ) has been around for many old ages and therefore has besides faced many unfavorable judgments. The chief unfavorable judgment put away against HCA was the consequence of rising prices on the accounting construct as many jobs are caused due to rising prices. The chief and most obvious job is where the dealing in a certain currency should stay the same as the clip of recording, i.e. the buying power should stay stable over clip. Another job is the consequence on net incomes as the alterations to assets, caused by rising prices are ignored. Other defects due to rising prices include, concern entities becomes ill-defined. Puting programs, decision-making and puting marks may be suboptimal if we have outdated informations. As an option to HCA, Current Value Accounting ( CVA ) was thought to be the most appropriate fiscal coverage method and so was researched and developed even further. After mush research and development the current value posit still suffered from a figure of disadvantages: HCA is more nonsubjective and therefore is more verifiable from auditable certification. As HCA is dealing based, CVA destroys the accurate nature of HCA. Due to the grade of subjectiveness in mensurating current value, the betterment in comparing commercial entities is a myth. Current Buying Power ( CPP ) , Replacement Cost ( RC ) and Net Realisable Value ( NRV ) are all income and value theoretical accounts that have been developed to either replace the Historical Cost convention or to work alongside it. Income and value are both measured utilizing the CPP theoretical account, this is merely done with the acceptance of a monetary value index system. By entering the monetary value alterations in a group of goods/services, which are used within the economic system, we can enter the monetary value fluctuations in a peculiar good/service. The base point in clip is the point where these trade goods are determined and is indexed as 100. For illustration, if we have a scope of goods that sum to ?65 on 31 Jan 20X2, the alterations recorded would be as follows: ?65 at 31 Jan 20X2 ?69 at 28 Feb 20X2 ?72 at 31 March 20X2 ?74 at 31 April 20X2 The indexed monetary value alterations would be: Death Penalty Essay Conrules. The statement of Accounting Policies is a system based on the value to the concern. This merely means that it considers the current value system as is merely to find the value of the plus within the concern. So, if the plus is deserving replacing we would replace it through the RC. If it is deserving maintaining, but non replacing, so utilize economic value, if it is non deserving replacing or maintaining so we would utilize NRV. To better the current historic cost system this attack would cut down the figure of anomalousnesss and has been applied in FRS 3 and requires a new primary fiscal statement. the Statement of Accounting Principles continues to imagine that a assorted measuring system will be used and it focuses on the mix of Historical cost and current value to be adopted. The ASB has been faced with a great trade of trouble from the Statement of Principles ( SoP ) . Where the first bill of exchange was prepared between 1991 and 1995, and finally issued in November 1995. This bill of exchange was faced with a important sum of unfavorable judgment as it was chiefly concentrating on the balance sheet instead than the net income and loss history. Therefore, following much treatment the SoP was issued in 1999 as a unequivocal papers. The chief aim of the SoP was to help the ASB by explicating the constructs that underlie the ASB s work. IASC / IASB Accounting criterions are hard to develop and formalize, particularly for smaller states. Therefore, some signifier of ordinance was needed for the fiscal statements that were produced by these smaller states. And so, led to the creative activity of the IASC in 1973 by a figure of the accounting organic structures from assorted states including, UK, Australia, France, Germany, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Ireland and the USA. In 2001 the IASC was replaced by the International Accounting Standards Board ( IASB ) . Where the IASB adopted all the International Accounting Standards ( IASs ) that the IASC had set and any new criterions set by the IASB were now to be named by the International Financial Reporting Standards ( IFRSs ) . Similar to the IASC, there are 19 legal guardians who oversee any work by the IASB, these legal guardians are from around the Earth, six from Europe, six from USA, four from Asia/Pacific and the staying three can be from anyplace provided the geographical balance is retained. Similar to the ASB, the IASB was incognizant on how to react to the alterations in rising prices rates. This led to the issue of IAS 15 in 1983 which required that replacing cost accommodations be used in the HCA histories and besides the corrected accommodations for depreciation, cost of gross revenues and pecuniary points be recorded. By 1989 the IAS 15 became optional as rising prices rates fell to below dual figures which meant that the companies were unwilling to fix the rising prices adjusted histories. Then in 2003, the IAS 15 was removed, in developed states, as portion of the ASB betterment undertaking, because the rising prices rates fluctuated between 1-4 % . However, in less developed states many are sing hyperinflation therefore inflation-adjusted histories are still required. Decision No better option is available to replace the flawed HCA method, this explains why the Accounting organic structures have non replaced HCA. Although HCA has a figure of restrictions, the accounting organic structures seem to disregard the fact that there are besides a figure of benefits of HCA. Corporations across the Earth recognize and accept the HCA theoretical account. So, if the accounting organic structures decide to replace HCA the inquiry that needs to be asked is, will it be better than historical cost accounting? It will be hard to replace as people are familiar working with HCA. Historical Cost Accounting is and will likely stay the oldest and most dominant method to mensurate concern public presentation, until, the accounting organic structures are able to develop a foolproof method which will efficaciously replace the HCA method.